ASSOCIATION OF MILITARY LEGAL ADMINISTRATORS
The following Bylaws shall be subject to, and governed by, the Non-Profit Corporation Act of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the Articles of Incorporation of the Association of Military Legal Administrators. In the event of a direct conflict between the herein contained provisions of these Bylaws and the mandatory provisions of the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act, said Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act shall be the prevailing controlling law. In the event of a direct conflict between the provisions of these Bylaws and the Articles of Incorporation of the Organization, it shall then be these Bylaws which shall be controlling.
ARTICLE I – NAME
The legal name of the Non-Profit Corporation shall be known as the Association of Military Legal Administrators and herein be referred to as “Association.
ARTICLE II – PURPOSE
1. The general purpose for which this Association has been established area as follows:
The Association is established within the meaning of IRS Publication 557 Section 501(c)(3) Organization of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“the Code”) or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code and shall be operated exclusively,
To promote the principles of justice, the liberties provided by the United States Constitution, and the modern day practice of law office management. Its mission, “Teach, Coach, Mentor, Lead”, characterizes the role of the Army Legal Administrator and the Marine Corps Legal Administrative Officer and the commitment to the values of military service. The Association seeks to assist member transition from military to civilian life, enhance employment opportunities and professional educational learning though a continuous process of teaching, coaching, mentoring and leading.
a. To promote the principles of justice, the liberties provided by the United States Constitution, and the modern-day practice of law office management. Its mission, “Serve to Teach, Coach, Mentor, and Lead,” characterizes the core values of members of the Association derived from military service as Army Legal Administrators, Marine Corps Legal Administrative Officers, and their families. Further, the Association seeks to support service members from the legal community, and their family members, transition from military to civilian life, enhance employment opportunities, and inculcate professional education imbued with continuous service to teach, coach, mentor, and lead. [Amended by Resolution 19-06]
b. To perform all things incidental to, or appropriate in, the foregoing specific and primary purposes. However, the Association shall not, except to an insubstantial degree, engage in any activity or the exercise of any powers which are not in furtherance of its primary non-profit purposes.
2. The Association shall hold and may exercise all such powers as may be conferred upon any nonprofit organizations by the laws of the laws of the State of and as may be necessary or expedient for the administration of affairs and attainment of the purposes of the Association. At no time and in no event shall the Association participate in any activity which has not been permitted to be carried out by an Association exempt under 501(c) of the Code.
ARTICLE III – OFFICES
The principal office of the Association shall be located in the County of Albemarle, State of Virginia.
The Association may have other such offices as the Board of Directors may determine or deem necessary, or as the affairs of the Association may find a need for from time to time. [Pending change UP Resolution 23-01]
ARTICLE IV – DEDICATION OF ASSETS
The properties and assets of the Association are irrevocably dedicated to and for non-profit purposes only. No part of the net earnings, properties, or assets of this Association, on dissolution or otherwise shall inure to the benefit of any person or any members, director, or officer of this Association. On liquidation or dissolutions, all remaining properties and assets of the Association shall be distributed and paid over to an organization dedicated to non-profit purposes which has established its tax-exempt status pursuant to Section 501(c) of the Code.
ARTICLE V – BOARD OF DIRECTORS
I. General Powers and Responsibilities
The Association shall be governed by a Board of Directors (the “Board”), which shall have all rights, powers, privileges, and limitations of liability of directors of a non-profit corporation organized under the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act. The Board shall establish policies and directives governing business and programs of the Association and shall delegate to the Executive Director and Association staff, subject to the provisions of these Bylaws, authority, and responsibilities to see that the policies and directives are appropriately followed.
II. Number and Qualifications
The Board shall have up to 12, but no fewer than 8 Board members. The number of Board members may be increased beyond 12 members or decreased to less than 8 members by affirmative vote of all of the then serving Board of Directors. A Board member need not be a resident of the State of Virginia.
In addition to the regular membership of the Board, representative of such other organizations or individuals as the Board may deem advisable to elect shall be Ex-Officio Board Members, which will have the same rights and obligations, including voting power, as the other directors.
1. The Board shall have at least five (5) Board members. A Board member need not be a resident of the State of Virginia. Regular Board members must be life members of the Association at the time of the election.
2. In addition to the regular membership of the Board, representatives of such other organizations or individuals as the Board may deem advisable to appoint shall be Ex-Officio Board Members, who shall carry out assigned duties under the authority of the Board of Directors but will not have voting authority.
3. The Executive Director, the agent of the Board of Directors, carries out the business of the Association, at the direction of the Board and under the supervision of the President. The Board of Directors may place the Executive Director under a contract of employment where appropriate; however, the Executive Director role is not a member of the Board, nor may the Executive Director vote nor be a proxy for votes. The Executive Director may be a person concurrently serving as member of the Board of Directors in another capacity other than Treasurer/Chief Financial Officer. [Amended by Resolution 20-01]
III. Board Compensation
The Board shall receive no compensation other than for reasonable expenses. However, provided the compensation structure complies with Sections relating to “Contracts Involving Board Members and/or Officers” as stipulated under these Bylaws, nothing in these Bylaws shall be construed to preclude any Board member from serving the Association in any other capacity and receiving compensation for services rendered.
IV. Board Elections
he Governance Committee shall present nominations for new and renewing Board members. Recommendations from the Governance Committee shall be made known to the Board in writing before nominations are made and voted on. New and renewing Board members shall be approved by a majority of those Board members at a Board meeting at which a quorum is present.
The Governance Committee shall present nominations for new Board members. Recommendations from the Governance Committee shall be made known to the Board in writing and approved by a quorum of the Board before ballots are presented to the general membership for election. Members of the Association in good standing will elect members of the Board of Directors by majority vote. The ballot will list all candidates running for Board membership. The candidates with the most “Yes” votes are accepted as board members until all vacancies are filled. The Election will be electronically conducted through the AMLA website; ballots available for voting for at least 21 days from the date submitted to the active membership; and the announcement of the elected officers will be made within seven (7) days of certification by the Board. [Amended by Resolution 21-01]
V. Term of Board
All appointments to the Board shall be for a term of 1 year. No person shall service more than 2 consecutive terms unless a majority of the Board, during the course of a Board meeting at which a quorum is present, votes to appoint a Board member to 2 additional years. No person shall serve more than 4 consecutive years. After serving the maximum total number of consecutive years on the Board, a member may be eligible for reconsideration as a Board member after 2 years have passed since the conclusion of such Board member’s service.
All elected Directors shall serve on the Board for a term of three years. There are no other term limitations. [Amended by Resolution 21-01]
1. A vacancy on the Board of Directors may exist at the occurrence of the following conditions:
a) The death, resignation, or removal of any director;
b) The declaration by resolution of the Board of a vacancy in the office of a director who has been declared of unsound mind by a final order of court, convicted of a felony, found by final order or judgment of any court to have breached a duty pursuant to the Corporation Code and/or Act of the law dealing with standards of conduct for a director, or has missed 3 consecutive meetings of the Board of Directors, or a total of 4 meetings of the Board during any one calendar year;
c) An increase in the authorized number of directors; or
d) The failure of the directors, at any annual or other meeting of directors at which director(s) are to be elected, to elect the full authorized number of directors.
2. The Board of Directors, by way of affirmative vote of a majority of the director then currently in office, may remove any director without cause at any regular or special meeting, provided that the director to be removed has been notified in writing in the manner set forth in Article V – Meetings that such action would be considered at the meeting. Except as provided in this paragraph, any director may resign effective upon giving written notice to the chair of the Board, the president of the Association, the secretary of the Association, or the Board of Directors, unless the notice specifies a later time for the effectiveness of the resignation. If the resignation is effective at a future time, a successor may be designated to take office when the resignation becomes effective. Unless the Attorney General of is first notified, no director may resign when the Association is left without a duly elected director in charge of its affairs.
3. Any vacancy on the Board may be filled by vote of all the directors then in office, whether the number of directors then in office is less than a quorum, or by vote of the sole remaining director. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director’s term of office expires. A Board member elected to fill a vacancy shall be elected for the unexpired term of his or her predecessor in office.
Each Board member shall have the right to resign at any time upon written notices thereof to the Chair of the Board, Secretary of the Board, or the Executive Director. Unless otherwise specified in the notice, the resignation shall take effect upon receipt thereof, and the acceptance of such resignation shall take effect upon receipt thereof, and the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.
A Board member may be removed, with or without cause, at any duly constituted meeting of the Board, by the affirmative vote of all of then-serving Board members.
A Board member may be removed at any duly constituted meeting of the Board, by the affirmative vote of all then-serving Board members. Such a vote shall be taken at request by any active members of the Association, with or without cause. [Amended by Resolution 21-01]
The Board’s regular meetings may be held at such time and place as shall be determined by the Board. The Chair of the Board or any five regular Board members may call a special meeting of the Board with 14 days’ written notice provided to each member of the Board. The notice shall be served to each Board member via hand delivery, regular mail, email, or fax. The person(s) authorized to call such a special meeting of the Board may also establish the place where the meeting is to be conducted, so long as it is a reasonable place to hold any special meetings of the Board.
The Secretary shall be responsible for the recording of all minutes of each meeting of the Board in which business shall be transacted in such order as the Board may determine from time to time. However, if the Secretary is unavailable, the Chair of the Board shall appoint an individual to act as Secretary at the meeting. The Secretary, or the individual appointed to act as Secretary, shall prepare the minutes of the meetings, which shall be delivered to the Association to be placed in the minute books. A copy of the minutes shall be delivered to each Board member via either regular mail, hand delivered, emailed, or faxed within 10 business days after the close of each Board meeting.
XI. Action by Written Consent
Any action required by law to be taken at a meeting of the Board, or any action that may be taken at a meeting of the Board, may be taken without a meeting if consent in writing setting forth the action so taken shall be signed by all Board members. The number of directors in office must constitute a quorum for an action taken by unanimous consent shall be placed in the minute book of the Association and shall have the same force and written consent, such effect as a unanimous vote of the Board taken at an actual meeting. The Board members’ written consent may be executed in multiple counterparts or copies, each of which shall be deemed original for all purposes. In addition, facsimile signatures, and electronic signatures or other electronic “consent click” acknowledgements shall be effective as original signatures.
At each meeting of the Board of Directors or Board Committees, the presence of most of the board or committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. If at any time the Board consists of an even number of members and a vote result in a tie, then the vote of the Chair of the Board shall be the deciding vote. The act of most of the Board members serving on the Board or Board Committees and present at a meeting in which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board or Board Committees, unless otherwise provided by the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaw, or a law specifically requiring otherwise. If a quorum is not present at a meeting, the Board members present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice until a quorum shall be present. However, a Board member shall be considered present at any meeting of the Board or Board Committees if during the meeting he or she is present via telephone or web conferencing with the other Board members participating in the meeting.
Each Board member shall only have one vote.
Board members shall not be allowed to vote by written proxy.
XV. Board Member Attendance
An elected Board Member who is absent from three consecutive regular meetings of the Board during a fiscal year shall be encouraged to reevaluate with the Chair of the Board his/her commitment to the Association. The Board may deem a Board member who has missed three consecutive meetings without such a reevaluation with the Chair to have resigned from the Board.
ARTICLE VI – OFFICERS
I. Officers and Duties
The Board shall elect officers of the Association which shall include a Chair of the Board (Chief Executive Officer), President (Executive Director), Vice President, a Secretary, a Treasurer (Chief Financial Officer), and such other officers as the Board may designate by resolution. The same person may hold any number of offices, except that neither the Secretary nor the Treasurer may serve concurrently as the Chair of the Board or the President. In addition to the duties in accordance with this Article, officers shall conduct all other duties typically pertaining to their offices and other such duties which may be required by law, Articles of Incorporation, or by these bylaws, subject to control of the Board of Directors, and they shall perform any other such additional duties which the Board of Directors may assign to them at their discretion.
The officers will be selected by the Board at its annual meeting, and shall serve the needs of the Board, subject to all rights, if any, of any officer who may be under a contract of employment. Therefore, without any bias or predisposition to the rights of any officer that may be under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed with or without cause by the Board. All officers have the right to resign at any time by providing notice in writing to the Chair of the Board, President and/or Secretary of the Association, without bias or predisposition to all rights, in any, of the Association under any contract to which said officer is a part thereof. All resignations shall become effective upon the date on which the written notice of resignation is received or at any time later as may be specified within the designation; and unless otherwise indicated within the written notice, a state acceptance of the resignation shall not be required to make the resignation effective.
Any and all vacancies in any office because of death, resignation, disqualification, removal, or for
any other cause, shall be filled in accordance to the herein prescribed bylaws for regular appointments to such office. The compensation, if any, of the officers shall be fixed or determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.
1. The Board shall appoint, from its membership, officers of the Association which shall include a President, Vice President, a Secretary (Chief Administrative Officer), a Treasurer (Chief Financial Officer), and such other officers as the Board may designate by resolution. The same person may hold any number of offices, except that neither the Secretary nor the Treasurer may serve concurrently as the President or Vice President. In addition to the duties in accordance with this Article, officers shall conduct all other duties typically pertaining to their offices and other such duties which may be required by law, Articles of Incorporation, or by these bylaws, subject to control of the Board of Directors, and they shall perform any other such additional duties which the Board of Directors may assign to them at their discretion.
2. The elected Board of Officers will elect officers from within the Board members at its annual meeting, and the officers shall serve the needs of the Board, subject to all rights, if any, of any officer who may be under a contract of employment. Therefore, without any bias or predisposition to the rights of any officer that may be under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed with or without cause by the Board. All officers have the right to resign at any time by providing notice in writing to the President and/or Secretary, without bias or predisposition to all rights, in any, of the Association under any contract to which said officer is a part thereof.
3. All resignations shall become effective upon the date on which the written notice of resignation is received or at any time later as may be specified within the resignation; and unless otherwise indicated within the written notice, a state acceptance of the resignation shall not be required to make the resignation effective.
4. All vacancies in any office for any other cause shall be filled in accordance with the prescribed bylaws for regular appointments to such office. The compensation, if any, of the officers shall be fixed or determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.
Chair of the Board (Chief Executive Officer) Rescinded.
It shall be the responsibility of the Chair of the Board, when present, to preside over all meetings of the Board of Directors and Executive Committee. The Chair of the Board is authorized to execute, in the name of the Association, any and all contracts or other documents which may be authorized, either generally or specifically, by the Board to be executed by the Association, except when required by law that the President’s signature must be provided.
It shall be the responsibility of the President, in general, to supervise and conduct all activities and operations of the Association, subject to the control, advice and consent of the Board of Directors. The President shall keep the Board of Directors completely informed, shall freely consult with them in relation to all activities of the Association, and shall see that all orders and/or resolutions of the Board are carried out to the effect intended. The Board of Directors may place the President under a contract of employment where appropriate. The President shall be empowered to act, speak for, or otherwise represent the Association between meetings of the Board. The President shall be responsible for the hiring and firing of all personnel and shall be responsible for keeping the Board informed at all times of staff performance and for implementing any personnel policies which may be adopted and implemented by the Board. The President, always, is authorized to contract, receive, deposit, disburse and account for all funds of the Association, to execute in the name of the Association all contracts and other documents authorized either generally or specifically by the Board to be executed by the Association, and to negotiate any and all material business transactions of the Association.
III. Vice President
In the absence of the President, or in the event of his/her inability or refusal to act, it shall then be the responsibility of the Vice President to perform all the duties of the President, and in doing so shall have all authority and powers of and shall be subject to all the restrictions on, the President. The Vice President, always, is authorized to contract, receive, deposit, disburse and account for all funds of the Association, to execute in the name of the Association all contracts and other documents authorized either generally or specifically by the Board to be executed by the Association, and to negotiate all material business transactions of the Association.
Immediate Past President Abolished.
The Immediate Past President shall serve for a term of one (1) year immediately following the conclusion of such person’s term as President. The Immediate Past President shall serve as a nonelected director on the Board and ex-officio member of the Executive Committee concurrent with his or her term of office as Immediate Past President. In the absence of the President and Vice President, the Immediate Past President shall perform the duties of the President.
IV. Secretary (Chief Administrative Officer)
The Secretary, or his/her designee, shall be the custodian of all records and documents of the Association, which are required to be kept at the principal office of the Association, and shall act as secretary at all meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall keep the minutes of all such meetings on file in hard copy and electronic format. S/he shall attend to the giving and serving of all notices of the Association and shall see that the seal of the Association, if any, is affixed to all documents, the execution of which on behalf of the Association under its seal is duly authorized in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws. (Amended by Resolution 19-09).
Treasurer (Chief Financial Officer)
It shall be the responsibility of the Treasurer to keep and maintain, or cause to be kept or maintained, adequate and accurate accounts of all the properties and business transactions of the Association, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital, retained earnings, and other matters customarily included in financial statements. The Treasurer shall be responsible for ensuring the deposit of, or cause to be deposited, all money
and other valuables as may be designated by the Board of Directors. Furthermore, the Treasurer shall disburse, or cause to be disbursed, the funds of the Association, as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, and shall render to the Chair of the Board, President, and directors, whenever they request it, an account of all the Treasurer’s transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the Association.
The Treasurer shall give the Association a bond, if so requested and required by the Board of Directors, in the amount and with the surety or sureties specified by the Board for faithful performance of the duties of the Treasurer’s office and for restoration to the Association of all its books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of every kind in the Treasurer’s possession or under the Treasurer’s control upon the Treasurer’s death, resignation, retirement, or removal from office. The Association shall pay the cost of such a bond.
V. Treasurer (Chief Financial Officer)
1. The Treasurer (Chief Financial Officer) shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept or maintained, adequate and accurate accounts of all the properties and business transactions of the Association, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital, retained earnings, and other matters customarily included in financial statements. The CFO will assume responsibility for all accounts within 30 days of acceptance of office. The President will be secondary on all accounts established or maintained by the Treasurer (CFO) within 30 days of acceptance of office or creation of a new account. The elected Treasurer will ensure all previous officers are removed from all accounts.
2. The Treasurer shall be responsible for ensuring the deposit of, or cause to be deposited, all money and other valuables as may be designated by the Board of Directors. Furthermore, the Treasurer shall disburse, or cause to be disbursed, the funds of the Association, as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, or Board approved committee budget expenditures to the appointed Committee Chair and shall render to the Members monthly (via the members only portion of the AMLA Website), an account of all the transactions and of the financial condition of the Association. Further, the Treasurer will report/update to the Guidestar Seal of Transparency AMLA account all the requirements of public disclosure for the Silver, Gold, and Platinum Seals of Transparency as applicable (with a view of obtaining and sustaining highest status). Financial reports will be made available to the members on a quarterly basis on the AMLA website.
3. The Treasurer shall give the Association a bond, if so requested and required by the Board of Directors, in the amount and with the surety or sureties specified by the Board for faithful performance of the duties of the Treasurer’s office and for restoration to the Association of all its books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of every kind in the Treasurer’s possession or under the Treasurer’s control upon the Treasurer’s death, resignation, retirement, or removal from office. The Association shall pay the cost of such a bond. [Amended by Resolution 19-08]
ARTICLE VII – COMMITTEES
I. Committees of Directors
1. The Board of Directors may, by resolution adopted by a majority of the directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present, designate one or more committees to exercise all or a portion of the authority of the Board, to the extent of the powers specifically delegated in the resolution of the Board or in these bylaws. Each such committee shall consist of one (1) or more directors and may also include people who are not on the Board but whom the directors believe to be reliable and competent to serve on the specific committee. However, committees exercising any authority of the Board of Directors may not have any non-director members. The Board may designate one or more alternative members of any committee who may replace any absent member at any meeting of the committee. The appointment of members or alternative members of a committee requires the vote of a majority of the directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present. The Board of Directors may also designate one or more advisory committees that do not have the authority of the Board. However, no committee, regardless of Board resolution, may:
a) Approve of any action that, pursuant to applicable Law, would also require the affirmative vote of the members of the Board if this were a membership vote.
b) Fill vacancies on, or remove the members of, the Board of Directors or any committee that has the authority of the Board.
c) Fix compensation of the directors serving on the Board or on any committee.
d) Amend or repeal the Articles of Incorporation or bylaws or adopt new bylaws.
e) Amend or repeal any resolution of the Board of Directors that by its express terms is not so amenable or repealable.
f) Appoint any other committees of the Board of Directors or their members.
g) Approve a plan of merger, consolidation, voluntary dissolution, bankruptcy, or reorganization; or a plan for the sale, lease, or exchange of all or considerably all the property and assets of the Association otherwise than in the usual and regular course of its business; or revoke any such plan.
h) Approve any self-dealing transaction, except as provided pursuant to law.
2. Unless otherwise authorized by the Board of Directors, no committee shall compel the Association
in a contract or agreement or expend Association funds.
II. Meetings and Actions of Committees
1. Meetings and actions of all committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of Article V – Board of Directors of these bylaws concerning meetings and actions of the directors, with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board of Directors and its members, except that the time for regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of the Board of Directors or by resolution of the committee. Special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the Board of Directors. Notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to any and all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee. Minutes shall be kept of each meeting of any committee and shall be filed with the Association records. The Board of Directors may adopt rules not consistent with the provisions of these bylaws for the governance of any committee.
2. If a director relies on information prepared by a committee on which the director does not serve, the committee must be composed exclusively of any or any combination of (a) directors, (b) directors or members of the Association the director believes to be reliable and competent in the matters presented, or (c) counsel, independent accountants, or other persons as to matters which the director believes to be within that person’s professional or expert competence.
III. Executive Committee
Pursuant to Article VII – Committee of Directors, the Board may appoint an Executive Committee composed of a minimum of 2 directors, one of whom shall be the Chair of the Board and another shall be either the Secretary, or the Treasurer, to serve on the Executive Committee of the Board. The Executive Committee, unless limited in a resolution of the Board, shall have and may exercise all the authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Association between meetings of the Board, provided, however, that the Executive Committee shall not have the authority of the Board in reference to those matters enumerated in Article VII – Committee of Directors. The Secretary of the Association shall send to each director a summary report of the business conducted in any meeting of the Executive Committee.
IV. Audit Committee
1. The Board, at its sole discretion, shall appoint an Audit Committee, which shall otherwise govern any committee’s operations, and may be comprised of one or more persons including persons other than directors of the Association.
The membership of the Audit Committee shall not include the following persons:
a) The Chair of the Board of the Board
b) The Treasurer of the Association
c) Any member of the Association; or
d) Any person with a material financial interest in any entity doing business with the Association.
2. In the event the Board should appoint a Finance Committee, the members of said Finance Committee must comprise less than one-half (1/2) of the membership of the Audit Committee, and the Chair of the Finance Committee shall not serve on the Audit Committee.
3. The Audit Committee shall make recommendations to the Board of Directors regarding the hiring and termination of an auditor, who shall be an independent certified public accountant, and may be authorized by the Board to negotiate the auditor’s salary.
4. The Audit Committee shall consult with the auditor to assure its members that the financial affairs of the Association are in order, and after review shall determine whether to accept the audit. It shall be the responsibility of the Audit Committee to ensure that the auditor’s firm adheres to the standards for auditor independence, as set forth in the latest version of the Government Auditing Standards, which have been published by the Comptroller General of the United States, or any standards established and published by the Attorney General of Virginia.
ARTICLE VIII – STANDARD OF CARE
1. A director shall perform all duties of a director, including, but not limited to, duties as a member of any committee of the Board on which the director may serve, in such a manner as the director deems to be in the best interest of the Association and with such care, including reasonable inquiry, as an ordinary, prudent and reasonable person in a similar situation may exercise under similar circumstances.
2. In the performance of the duties of a director, a director shall be entitled to rely on information, opinions, reports, or statements, including financial statements and other financial data, in each case prepared or presented by:
a) One or more officers or members of the Association whom the director deems to be reliable and competent in the matters presented;
b) Counsel, independent accountants, or other persons, as to the matters which the director deems to be reliable and competent in the matter presented;
c) A committee of the Board upon which the director does not serve, as to matters within its designated authority, which committee the director deems to merit confidence, so long as in any such case the director acts in good faith, after reasonable inquiry when the need may be indicated by the circumstances, and without knowledge that would cause such reliance to be unwarranted.
3. Except as herein provided in Article VIII – Standard of Care, any person who performs the duties of a director in accordance with the above shall have no liability based upon any failure or alleged failure to discharge that person’s obligations as a director, including, without limitation of the following, any actions or omissions which exceed or defeat a public or charitable purpose to which the Association, or assets held by it, are dedicated.
The Association shall not make any loan of money or property to, or guarantee the obligation of, any director or officer, unless approved by the Attorney General; provided, however, that the Association may advance money to a director or officer of the Association or any subsidiary for expenses reasonably anticipated to be incurred in the performance of the duties of such officer or director so long as such individual would be entitled to be reimbursed for such expenses absent that advance.
III. Conflict of Interest
The purpose of the Conflict-of-Interest policy is to protect the Association’s interest when it is contemplating entering into a transaction or arrangement that might benefit the private interest of one of its officers or directors, or that might otherwise result in a possible excess benefit transaction. This policy is intended to supplement but not replace any applicable state and federal laws governing conflict of interest applicable to nonprofit and charitable corporations/organizations and is not intended as an exclusive statement of responsibility.
IV. Restriction on Interested Directors
Not more than 0% (percent) of the persons serving on the Board of Directors at any time may be interested persons. An interested person is (1) any person currently compensated by the Association for services rendered to it within the previous twelve (12) months, whether as a fulltime or part-time employee, independent contractor, or otherwise, excluding any reasonable compensation paid to a director; and (2) any brother, sister, parent, ancestor, descendent, spouse, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, son-in-law, mother-in-law, or father-in-law of any such person. However, any violation of the provisions of this section shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any transaction entered into by the interested person.
V. Duty to Disclose
In connection with any actual or possible conflict of interest, an interested person must disclose the existence of the financial interest and be given the opportunity to disclose all material facts to the directors who are considering the proposed transaction or arrangement.
VI. Establishing a Conflict of Interest
After the disclosure of the financial interest and all material facts, and after any discussion with the interested person, the interested person shall leave the Board meeting while the potential conflict of interest is discussed and voted upon. The remaining Board members shall decide if a conflict of interest exists.
VII. Addressing a Conflict of Interest
1. In the event that the Board should establish that a proposed transaction or arrangement establishes a conflict of interest, the Board shall then proceed with the following actions:
a) Any interested person may render a request or report at the Board meeting, but upon completion of said request or report the individual shall be excused while the Board discusses the information and/or material presented and then votes on the transaction or arrangement proposed involving the possible conflict of interest.
b) The Chair of the Board of the Board shall, if deemed necessary and appropriate, appoint a disinterested person or committee to investigate alternatives to the proposed transaction or arrangement.
c) After exercising due diligence, the Board shall determine whether the Association can obtain with reasonable efforts a more advantageous transaction or arrangement from a person or entity that would not give rise to a conflict of interest.
d) If a more advantageous transaction or arrangement is not reasonably possible under circumstances not producing a conflict of interest, the Board shall determine by a majority vote of the disinterested directors whether the transaction or arrangements is in the best interest of the Association, for its own benefit, and whether it is fair and reasonable. It shall make its decision as to whether to enter into the transaction arrangement in conformity with this determination.
VIII. Violations of Conflict-of-Interest Policy
Should the Board have reasonable cause to believe an interested person has failed to disclose actual or possible conflicts of interest, the Board shall then inform the interested person of the basis for such belief and afford the interested person an opportunity to explain the alleged failure to disclose. If, after hearing the interested person’s explanation, and after making further investigation as may be warranted in consideration of the circumstances, the Board determines the interested person intentionally failed to disclose an actual or possible conflict of interest, it shall take appropriate disciplinary and corrective action.
IX. Procedures and Records
1. All minutes of the Board Meetings, when applicable, shall contain the following information:
a) The names of all the persons who disclosed or otherwise were found to have a financial interest in connection with an actual or possible conflict of interest, the nature of the financial interest, any action taken to determine whether a conflict of interest was present, and the Board’s decision as to whether a conflict of interest in fact existed.
b) The names of the persons who were present for discussion and any votes relating to the transaction or arrangement, the content of the discussions, including any alternatives to the proposed transaction or arrangement, and a record of any vote taken in connection with the proceedings.
X. Acknowledgement of Conflict-of-Interest Policy
1. Each director, principal officer, and member of a committee with Board delegated powers shall be required to sign a statement which affirms that such person:
a) Has received a copy of the conflict-of-interest policy;
b) Has read and understands the policy;
c) Has agreed to comply with the policy; and
d) Understands that the Association is charitable, and in order to maintain its federal tax
exemption, it must engage primarily in activities which accomplish one or more of its tax-exempt purposes.
XI. Violation of Loyalty – Self-dealing Contracts
1. A self-dealing contract is any contract or transaction (i) between this Association and one or more of its Directors, or between this Association and any corporation, firm, or association in which one or more of the Directors has a material financial interest (“Interested Director”), or (ii) between this Association and a corporation, firm, or association of which one or more of its directors are Directors of this Association. Said, self-dealing shall not be void or voidable because such Director(s) of corporation, firm, or association are parties or because said Director(s) are present at the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee which authorizes, approves, or ratifies the self-dealing contract, if:
a) All material facts are fully disclosed to or otherwise known by the members of the Board and the self-dealing contract is approved by the Interested Director in good faith (without including the vote of any membership owned by said interested Director(s));
b) All material facts are fully disclosed to or otherwise known by the members of the Board and the self-dealing contract is approved by the Interested Director in good faith (without including the vote of any membership owned by said Director(s));
c) As to contracts not approved as provided in above sections (a) and/or (b), the person asserting the validity of the self-dealing contract sustains the burden of proving that the contract was just and reasonable as to the Association at the time it was authorized, approved, or ratified.
1. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the Association shall indemnify its “agents,” as described by law, including its directors, officers, members and volunteers, and including persons formerly occupying any such position, and their heirs, executors and administrators, against all expenses, judgments, fines, settlements, and other amounts actually and reasonably incurred by them in connection with any “proceeding,” and including any action by or in the right of the Association, by reason of the fact that the person is or was a person as described in the Non-Profit Corporation Act. Such right of indemnification shall not be deemed exclusive of any other right to which such persons may be entitled apart from this Article.
2. The Association shall have the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any agent
of the Association, to the fullest extent permitted by law, against liability asserted against or
incurred by the agent in such capacity or arising out of the agent’s status as such, or to give other
indemnification to the extent permitted by law.
ARTICLE IX – EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS
I. Execution of Corporate Instruments
1. The Board of Directors may, at its discretion, determine the method and designate the signatory officer or officers, or other person or persons, to execute any corporate instrument or document, or to sign the corporate name without limitation, except when otherwise provided by law, and such execution or signature shall be binding upon the Association.
2. Unless otherwise specifically determined by the Board of Director or otherwise required by law, formal contracts of the Association, promissory notes, deeds of trust, mortgages, other evidence of indebtedness of the Association, other corporate/organization instruments or documents, memberships in other corporations/organizations, and certificates of shares of stock owned by the Association shall be executed, signed, and/or endorsed by the President. All checks and drafts drawn on banks or other depositories on funds to the credit of the Association, or in special accounts of the Association, shall be signed by such person or persons as the Board of Directors shall authorize to do so. Loans and Contracts No loans or advances shall be contracted on behalf of the Association and no note or other evidence of indebtedness shall be issued in its name unless and except as the specific transaction is authorized by the Board of Directors. Without the express and specific authorization of the Board, no officer or other agent of the Association may enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Association.
ARTICLE X – RECORDS AND REPORTS
I. Maintenance and Inspection of Articles and Bylaws
The Association shall keep at its principal office the original or a copy of its Articles of Incorporation and bylaws as amended to date, which shall be open to inspection by the directors at all reasonable times during office hours.
II. Maintenance and Inspection of Federal Tax Exemption Application and Annual Information
The Association shall keep at its principal office a copy of its federal tax exemption application and its annual information returns for three years from their date of filing, which shall be open to public inspection and copying to the extent required by law.
III. Maintenance and Inspection of Other Corporate Records
The Association shall keep adequate and correct books and records of accounts and written minutes of the proceedings of the Board and committees of the Board. All such records shall be kept at a place or places as designated by the Board and committees of the Board, or in the absence of such designation, at the principal office of the Association. The minutes shall be kept in written or typed form, and other books and records shall be kept either in written or typed form or in any form capable of being converted into written, typed, or printed form. Upon leaving office, each officer, member, or agent of the Association shall turn over to his or her successor or the Chair of the Board or President, in good order, such Association monies, books, records, minutes, lists, documents, contracts or other property of the Association as have been in the custody of such officer, member, or agent during his or her term of office.
Each director shall have the absolute right at any reasonable time to inspect all books, records, and documents of every kind and the physical properties of the Association and each of its subsidiary association. The inspection may be made in person or by an agent or attorney, and shall include the right to copy and make extracts of documents.
IV. Preparation of Annual Financial Statements
The Association shall prepare annual financial statements using generally accepted accounting principles. Such statements shall be audited by an independent certified public accountant, in conformity with generally accepted accounting standards, under supervision of the Audit Committee established by these bylaws. The Association shall make these financial statements available to the Attorney General and members of the public for inspection no later than 30 days after the close of the fiscal year to which the statements relate.
1. The Board shall ensure an annual report is sent to all directors within 30 days after the end of the fiscal year of the Association, which shall contain the following information:
a) The assets and liabilities, including trust funds, of this corporation at the end of the fiscal year.
b) The principal changes in assets and liabilities, including trust funds, during the fiscal year.
c) The expenses or disbursements of the Association for both general and restricted purposes during the fiscal year.
d) The information required by Non-Profit Corporation Act concerning certain self-dealing transactions involving more than $50,000 or indemnifications involving more than $10,000 which took place during the fiscal year.
2. The report shall be accompanied by any pertinent report from an independent accountant or, if there is no such report, the certificate of an authorized officer of the Association that such statements were prepared without audit from the books and records of the Association.
ARTICLE XI – MEMBERSHIP
I. Membership and Qualifications
1. The following persons shall be eligible to become an Association Member:
a) All former students of the Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School who have completed either the School’s Warrant Officer Basic Course (WOBC), the School’s Warrant Officer Advanced Course (WOAC), or who have attended and completed the School’s yearly Legal Administrator Course (LAC);
b) Candidate/Student members: Current Warrant Officer Candidates and currently enrolled School students in WOCS/WOBC, shall be eligible to become an Association Member; however, such persons shall be classified as members of the Blue and Gold Society (BGS), the candidate/student membership of the Association, and not eligible to vote in Association elections or hold office in the Association until they attain the rank of Chief Warrant Officer.
2. To become an Association Member, an eligible person shall pay either an annual membership fee or purchase a life membership, the terms for each which shall be established from time to time by the Executive Board, herein defined in Article VII – Committees, of the Association.
II. Rights and Privileges of Membership
Association Members, with the exception of the Association Members who are members of the BGS, and Associate Members (as defined), shall have the following rights and privileges:
a) to vote in all Association elections.
b) to hold office in the Association.
c) to be eligible to receive all official publications of the Association.
III. Associate Members
Non-alumni friends of the Corporation, including faculty and staff members, spouses of students or Alumni and others who wish to join in more formal relationships with the University and the Association shall be eligible to become Associate Members in this Association (each, an “Associate Member”) upon payment of an annual-fee or associate life membership fee. Associate Members shall be accorded the privileges of membership in the Association except
that they may not hold office in the Association or vote in Association elections.
ARTICLE XII – FISCAL YEAR
The fiscal year for this Association shall end on June 30.
ARTICLE XIII – RELATIONSHIP WITH THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERALS’
CORPS OF THE ARMY AND/OR MARINE CORPS
1. No subordinate entity to this Association shall publish, release, or endorse to the public any statement, complaint, or recommendation that conflicts in any way with the policies and administration of the Army or Marine Corps Judge Advocate General’s Corps or of the Association without first having obtained the approval of the Executive Board.
2. In the interest of orderly procedure, communications from any subordinate entity of this Association to the Army or Marine Corps Judge Advocate General’s Corps shall be forwarded through the Executive Director.
ARTICLE XIV – AMENDMENTS AND REVISIONS
These bylaws may be adopted, amended, or repealed by the vote of all of the directors then in office. Such action is authorized only at a duly called and held meeting of the Board of Directors for which written notice of such meeting, setting forth the proposed bylaw revisions with explanations therefore, is given in accordance with these bylaws. If any provision of these bylaws requires the vote of a larger portion of the Board than is otherwise required by law, that provision may not be altered, amended or repealed by that greater vote.
ARTICLE XV – CORPORATE SEAL
The Board of Directors may adopt, use, and alter a corporate seal. The seal shall be kept at the principle office of the Association. Failure to affix to any corporate instrument, however, shall not affect the validity of that instrument.
ARTICLE XVI – CONSTRUCTION AND DEFINITIONS
Unless the context otherwise requires, the general provisions, rules, of construction, and definitions contained in the Virginia Non-Stock Corporation Act as amended from time to time shall govern construction of these bylaws.. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the masculine gender includes feminine and neuter, the singular numbers include the plural number includes the singular, and the term “person” includes as Association as well as a natural person. If any competent court of law shall deem any portion of these bylaws invalid or inoperative, then so far as is reasonable and possible (i) the remainder of these bylaws shall be considered valid and operative, and (ii) effect shall be given to the intent manifested by the portion deemed invalid or inoperative.
CERTIFICATE OF THE SECRETARY
I, Robert W. Harshbarger, certify that I am the current elected acting Secretary of the benefit Association, and the abov bylaws are the bylaws of this Association as adopted by the Board of Directors on June 11, 2016, and that the have not been amended or modified since the above.
Executed 11 June 2016 in Fairfax County, Virginia.